This series of monographs and edited collections was inspired by the vibrant wealth of British Sociological Association BSA symposia on a wide variety of sociological themes. Edited by a team of experienced sociological researchers, and supported by the BSA, it covers a wide range of topics related to sociology and sociological research and will feature contemporary work that is theoretically and methodologically innovative, has local or global reach, as well as work that engages or reengages with classic debates in sociology bringing new perspectives to important and relevant topics.
Find same-sex sexual relations appealing 4. Data from Laumann, E. The social organization of sexuality. University of Chicago Press. Some scholars attribute it to unknown biological factor s over which individuals have no control, just as individuals do not decide whether they are left-handed or right-handed.
Supporting this view, many gays say they realized they were gay during adolescence, just as straights would say they realized they were straight during their own adolescence. Other scholars say that sexual orientation is at least partly influenced by cultural norms, so that individuals are more likely to identify as gay or straight depending on the cultural views of sexual orientation into which they are socialized as they grow up.
At best, perhaps all we can say is that sexual orientation stems from a complex mix of biological and cultural factors that remain to be determined. The Development of Gender Differences What accounts for differences in female and male behavior and attitudes? Do the biological differences between the sexes account for other differences?
Or do these latter differences stem, as most sociologists think, from cultural expectations and from differences in the ways in which the sexes are socialized? These are critical questions, for they ask whether the differences between boys and girls and women and men stem more from biology or from society.
If we think behavioral and other differences between the sexes are due primarily to their respective biological makeups, we are saying that these differences are inevitable or nearly so and that any attempt to change them goes against biology and will likely fail.
As an example, consider the obvious biological fact that women bear and nurse children and men do not. Many people think this means women are therefore much better suited than men to take care of children once they are born, and that the family might be harmed if mothers work outside the home or if fathers are the primary caretakers.
Conversely, men may not even think about wanting to stay at home and may themselves face difficulties from employees, family, and friends if they want to do so.
A belief in a strong biological basis for differences between women and men implies, then, that there is little we can or should do to change these differences.
Data from General Social Survey, This implication makes it essential to understand the extent to which gender differences do, in fact, stem from biological differences between the sexes or, instead, stem from cultural and social influences.
If biology is paramount, then gender differences are perhaps inevitable and the status quo will remain. If culture and social influences matter much more than biology, then gender differences can change and the status quo may give way.
Biology and Gender Several biological explanations for gender roles exist, and we discuss two of the most important ones here. In prehistoric societies, few social roles existed. A major role centered on relieving hunger by hunting or gathering food. The other major role centered on bearing and nursing children.
Because only women could perform this role, they were also the primary caretakers for children for several years after birth. And because women were frequently pregnant, their roles as mothers confined them to the home for most of their adulthood.
Meanwhile, men were better suited than women for hunting because they were stronger and quicker than women. In prehistoric societies, then, biology was indeed destiny: Evolutionary reasons also explain why men are more violent than women.
If the human race evolved along these lines, sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists continue, natural selection favored those societies where men were stronger, braver, and more aggressive and where women were more fertile and nurturing.
Men became, by nature, more assertive, daring, and violent than women, and women are, by nature, more gentle, nurturing, and maternal than men. This in turn implies that existing gender inequality must continue because it is rooted in biology. Critics challenge the evolutionary explanation on several grounds Hurley, ; Buller, ; Begley, First, much greater gender variation in behavior and attitudes existed in prehistoric times than the evolutionary explanation assumes.
Third, human environments throughout the millennia have simply been too diverse to permit the simple, straightforward biological development that the evolutionary explanation assumes. Fourth, evolutionary arguments implicitly justify existing gender inequality by implying the need to confine women and men to their traditional roles.
This evidence instead finds that violent men have trouble finding female mates who would want them and that the female mates they find and the children they produce are often killed by rivals to the men.
A second biological explanation for traditional gender roles centers on hormones and specifically on testosterone, the so-called male hormone. One of the most important differences between boys and girls and men and women in the United States and many other societies is their level of aggression.
Why is this so?Sociology, an official journal of the British Sociological Association, is acknowledged as one of the leading journals in its caninariojana.com more than three decades, the journal has made a major contribution to the debates that have shaped the discipline and has an undisputed international reputation for publishing original research of the highest academic standard.
The sociology of gender is one of the largest subfields within sociology and features theory and research that critically interrogates the social construction of gender, how gender interacts with other social forces in society, and how gender relates to social structure overall.
Debates within the Discipline. Cold War, with an overarching geopolitical goal of securing resources and markets for Western powers. A range of lively debates exists both within and across these two perspectives. to integrate gender analysis into the sociological study of development.
Our article is well suited to make contributions to debates in gender scholarship about the “doing” and “undoing” of gender. (i.e., gender nonconformity, income, age, education) and using dichotomous indicators for missing data on and Sexuality in Sociological Research on Gender Stratification, Sociology Compass, 11, 4, ( From the past to present, gender difference has long been a debatable topic in our society.
Different approaches, mainly essentialism and constructionism, have different view on the origin of gender different. The main debate is that whether gender differences are socially constructed or derive from biological differences.
Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology.
Social interaction directly correlated with sociology regarding social structure. is to provide resources and funds to impoverished women who will in turn use them for education as well as business ventures.
What is Gender? Sociological Approaches. London: Sage Publications.