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You might wonder if kids will work it out for themselves. After all, lots of smart people have managed to think logically without formal instruction in logic.
Moreover, studies show that kids become better learners when they are forced to explain how they solve problems. So maybe kids will discover principles of logic spontaneously, as they discuss their ideas with others. But research hints at something else, too. Perhaps the most effective way to foster critical thinking skills is to teach those skills.
Abrami et al Studies suggest that students become remarkably better problem-solvers when we teach them to analyze analogies create categories and classify items appropriately identify relevant information construct and recognize valid deductive arguments test hypotheses recognize common reasoning fallacies distinguish between evidence and interpretations of evidence Do such lessons stifle creativity?
Critical thinking is about curiosity, flexibility, and keeping an open mind Quitadamo et al And, as Robert DeHaan has argued, creative problem solving depends on critical thinking skills DeHaan In fact, research suggests that explicit instruction in critical thinking may make kids smarter, more independent, and more creative.
Here are some examples--and some expert tips for teaching critical thinking to kids. Teaching critical thinking may boost inventiveness and raise IQ Richard Herrnstein and his colleagues gave over seventh graders explicit instruction in critical thinking--a program that covered hypothesis testing, basic logic, and the evaluation of complex arguments, inventiveness, decision making, and other topics.
The project was remarkably effective. Compared to students in a control group, the kids given critical thinking lessons made substantial and statistically significant improvements in language comprehension, inventive thinking, and even IQ Herrnstein et al Then they randomly assigned some students to receive critical thinking lessons as part of their biology curriculum.
Students in the experimental group were explicitly trained to recognize logical fallacies, analyze arguments, test hypotheses, and distinguish between evidence and the interpretation of evidence.
Students in a control group learned biology from the same textbook but got no special coaching in critical thinking. At the end of the program, students were tested again.
The students with critical thinking training showed greater improvement in their analytical skills, and not just for biology problems. The kids trained in critical thinking also did a better job solving everyday problems Zohar et al Tips for teaching critical thinking: What should parents and teachers do?
The short answer is make the principles of rational and scientific thinking explicit. Philip Abrami and colleagues analyzed studies about teaching critical thinking. The teaching approach with the strongest empirical support was explicit instruction--i.
In studies where teachers asked students to solve problems without giving them explicit instruction, students experienced little improvement Abrami et al So it seems that kids benefit most when they are taught formal principles of reasoning.
And the experiments mentioned above suggest that middle school students aren't too young to learn about logic, rationality, and the scientific method. I also wonder about the need to counteract the forces of irrationality. What else can we do?
And at home, parents may consider these recommendations made by Peter Facione and a panel of experts convened by the American Philosophical Association Facione Young children might not be ready for lessons in formal logic.
But they can be taught to give reasons for their conclusions.
And they can be taught to evaluate the reasons given by others. Wondering where to begin? If you have young child, check out these research-based tips for teaching critical thinking and scientific reasoning to preschoolers.
When we tell kids to do things in a certain way, we should give reasons.
Parents and teachers should foster curiosity in children. But many problems yield themselves to more than one solution. When kids consider multiple solutions, they may become more flexible thinkers. Kids should practice putting things in their own words while keeping the meaning intact.
And kids should be encouraged to make meaningful distinctions. Even grade school students can understand how emotions, motives--even our cravings--can influence our judgments. Encourage kids to reason about ethical, moral, and public policy issues.Seen and Heard.
What made you want to look up analytic?Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
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By understanding problems from a systems thinking standpoint, you are able to see how they are interconnected and the impact on your organisation. INTRODUCTION.
Both leadership and management in the 21st Century are becoming increasingly more complex.
Typically organisations in both the public and private sectors are facing changes driven by political, economic, sociological, technological, legal and environmental issues.
Recent Examples on the Web. Kamen hopes that his program can showcase science and engineering in a way that convinces kids to devote some of their time, energy and passion to learning math, physics and analytic skills. — Larry Greenemeier, Scientific American, "The Dean of Invention: Segway Mastermind Probes Sci-Tech's Future [Video]," 21 Oct.
As with a clinical drug trial, the methods.