Early years[ edit ] Educational psychology is a fairly new and growing field of study. Though it can date back as early as the days of Plato and Aristotle, it was not identified as a specific practice. It was unknown that everyday teaching and learning in which individuals had to think about individual differences, assessment, development, the nature of a subject being taught, problem solving, and transfer of learning was the beginning to the field of educational psychology. These topics are important to education and as a result it is important to understanding human cognition, learning, and social perception.
A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter.
Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.
A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it. Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low.
Also called a fitness surface. A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations. If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population.
Then, even if circumstances change such that it no longer provides any survival or reproductive advantage, the behavior will still tend to be exhibited -- unless it becomes positively disadvantageous in the new environment.
The diversification, over evolutionary time, of a species or group of species into several different species or subspecies that are typically adapted to different ecological niches for example, Darwin's finches. The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals.
A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale. Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics.
A person who believes that the existence of a god or creator and the nature of the universe is unknowable. An umbrella term for various simple organisms that contain chlorophyll and can therefore carry out photosynthesis and live in aquatic habitats and in moist situations on land.
The term has no direct taxonomic significance. Algae range from macroscopic seaweeds such as giant kelp, which frequently exceeds 30 m in length, to microscopic filamentous and single-celled forms such as Spirogyra and Chlorella.
One of the alternative forms of a gene. For example, if a gene determines the seed color of peas, one allele of that gene may produce green seeds and another allele produce yellow seeds. In a diploid cell there are usually two alleles of any one gene one from each parent.
Within a population there may be many different alleles of a gene; each has a unique nucleotide sequence. The relation between the size of an organism and the size of any of its parts. For example, an allometric relation exists between brain size and body size, such that in this case animals with bigger bodies tend to have bigger brains.
Allometric relations can be studied during the growth of a single organism, between different organisms within a species, or between organisms in different species. Speciation that occurs when two or more populations of a species are geographically isolated from one another sufficiently that they do not interbreed.
Living in separate places. The unit molecular building block of proteinswhich are chains of amino acids in a certain sequence.
There are 20 main amino acids in the proteins of living things, and the properties of a protein are determined by its particular amino acid sequence. A series of amino acids, the building blocks of proteinsusually coded for by DNA. Extinct relatives of cephalopods squid, octopi, and chambered nautilusesthese mollusks had coiled shells and are found in the fossil record of the Cretaceous period.
The group of reptiles, birds, and mammals. These all develop through an embryo that is enclosed within a membrane called an amnion. The amnion surrounds the embryo with a watery substance, and is probably an adaptation for breeding on land. The class of vertebrates that contains the frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders.
The amphibians evolved in the Devonian period about million years ago as the first vertebrates to occupy the land. They have moist scaleless skin which is used to supplement the lungs in gas exchange.Discover what makes New England College different from any other school, and learn more about our program offerings, tuition and the advantages of online learning.
What is the Difference Between Human Services and Psychology? there are distinct differences in focus and methodology that set the disciplines apart.
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acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large.
Brief Biosketch. Adele Diamond is the Canada Research Chair Professor of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. Intelligence Bibliography. Long before they enter school, children are judged on their relative ability to master such cognitive tasks as solving puzzles, learning the alphabet, and counting.
- Differences in Development between the Chesapeake Regions and New England The seventeenth and early eighteenth century, brought thousands of immigrants to America in pursuit of freedom and a new life.