Some of these disparities have been among racial or ethnic groups, some among nations, and some among regions, continents, or whole civilizations.
Organizations and institutions that practice racism discriminate against and marginalize a class of people who share a common racial designation. Racism can more narrowly refer to a system of oppression, such as institutional racism, that is based on the idea of one race's superiority over other races.
The term "racism" is usually applied to the dominant group in such a society, because that group typically has the means to oppress others.
However, "racism" can be equally applied to any individual or group sregardless of social status or dominance. By definition, one who practices racism is known as a racist. Racism can be overt or subtle, and there are two closely related forms: These are called individual and institutional racism, respectively.
Individual racism consists of overt acts by individuals, which can directly cause death, injury, or the destruction of property. Institutional racism is often more difficult to identify but no less destructive. It often originates in the operation of established and respected forces in society and, therefore, it may receive less public condemnation than does individual racism.
Racism is to be distinguished from "racialism," which W.
Du Bois argued was the belief that differences between the races exist, be they biologicalsocial, psychologicalor in the realm of the soul. He then went on to argue that racism is using this belief to push forward the argument that one's particular race is superior to the others.
Therefore, Du Bois separates the conditions of racism from racism itself. Debates over the origins of racism often suffer from a lack of clarity over the term. Many use the term "racism" to refer to more general phenomena, such as xenophobia fear of other races and ethnocentrism.
Attempts have been made to clearly distinguish those phenomena from racism as an ideology or from scientific racismwhich has little to do with actual xenophobia. History of racism Ethnic conflicts Racism has been conflated with earlier forms of ethnic and national conflict.
In most cases, ethno-national conflict conveys a struggle over land and strategic resources. In certain historical examples, ethnicity and nationalism were harnessed to rally combatants in wars between great religious empires e.
Notions of race and racism often have played central roles in such ethnic conflicts. Historically, when an adversary was identified as "other," based on notions of race or ethnicity particularly when "other" is construed as "inferior"the means employed by the self-presumed "superior" party to appropriate territory, human chattel, or material wealth often have been more ruthless, more brutal, and less constrained by moral or ethical considerations.
In both cases, the Asian imperial powers believed they were ethnically and racially superior to their vassals, and entitled to be their masters. Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally in In the Western world, racism evolved, encompassed the doctrine of "white supremacy," and helped fuel the European exploration, conquest, and colonization of much of the rest of the world— especially after Christopher Columbus reached the Americas.
One example of the brutalizing and dehumanizing effects of racism was the attempt to deliberately infect Native Americans with smallpox during Pontiac's Rebellion initself a war intended to ethnically cleanse the "other" Anglo-Americans from Native American land; each side "othered" the other.
According to historian Daniel Richter, Pontiac's Rebellion introduced "the novel idea that all native people were 'Indians,' that all Euro-Americans were 'Whites,' and that all on one side must unite to destroy the other" to both sides of the conflict.
Maintaining that Africans were "subhuman" was the only loophole in the prevalent ideal that "all men are created equal. Racism did not end with the U. Hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan formed during reconstruction in an attempt to disenfranchise, threaten, and subordinate African Americans.
European colonialism Main article: Colonialism Authors such as Hannah Arendtwho wrote The Origins of Totalitarianism inhave pointed out how the racist ideology "popular racism" that developed at the end of the nineteenth century helped legitimize the imperialist conquests of foreign territories and crimes that ensued such as the Herero and Namaqua genocide in French philosopher Auguste Comte 's positivist ideology of social progress as a consequence of scientific progress, led many Europeans to believe in the inherent superiority of the "White Race" over non-white races.
Racist rationalizations caused many people to consider such actions humanitarian obligations.Essay Discrimination Against African Americans And Discrimination Social Inequality Discrimination occurs all over the United States and due to such judgement, there cannot be an equal society.
An equal society is when a lot of people, no matter race or gender, live in . This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S. justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the antiwar movement, with a separate section on protest songs.
All my history essays will conclude with how hard it is being black. Within the period from to , the situation has hardly changed for better. The discrimination of African Americans and massacres were ongoing.
When Military Necessity Overrides Constitutional Guarantees: The Treatment of Japanese Americans During World War II. by Jay M. Brown. African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The term typically refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. As a compound adjective, the term is usually hyphenated as African-American.